Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Physics and Applications

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These parameters include the selection of excitation source, the features of the substrate, and the ratio of the sample to the substrate. The electromagnetic enhancement is strongest where the particles have the highest curvature; thus, the adsorption of the analyte on the long or narrow axis of an ellipsoid or spheroid effects the magnitude enhancement. SERS is used to investigate the vibrational properties of adsorbed molecules yielding structural information on the molecule and its local interactions. Uniquely identifies molecules. Enables the detection of individual molecules. There are many forms of SERS substrates depending on the purpose they are used for different applications [ 6 , 7 ].

SERS was first observed on the roughened surface of electrodes [ 8 , 9 ]. The Raman spectrum of pyridine was enhanced to almost more than million times in SERS on metal colloids [ 10 ]. This phenomenon was called SERS and it was realized that the nature of the substrate plays an important role in the enhancement [ 11 ]. Nano substrates from metals such as gold, silver, and copper exhibit enhancement of Raman spectra [ 12 ]. Figure 3 shows TEM image of silver nanoparticles. Every material has a characteristic plasmon collective oscillations of electrons associated with it, which is size dependent.

When the mean free path of the electron exceeds the size of the structure; 10 nm to nm, the plasmon is mostly associated with the surface.

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When a light matching the plasmon frequency of the nanostructure is incident on it, it excites the surface plasmon of the nanosubstrate. This is called surface plasmon resonance [ 13 ]. When a molecule is in the proximity of the surface of such a nanostructure, the Raman signals enhanced due to the increase of the EM field because of resonant plasmons, leading to the phenomenon of SERS [ 14 ].

Topic 7: Raman scattering

There are two proposed mechanisms for SERS enhancement, electromagnetic enhancement and chemical enhancement [ 15 ]. View Figure 3. The collective excitation of the electron cloud of a conductor is called a plasmon; if the excitation is confined to the near surface region it is called a surface plasmon. EM enhancement is a consequence of the interaction of incident electric field from incident radiation with the electrons on the metal surface, which causes excitation of surface plasmons and, thus, enhancement of electric field at the metal surface.

This mechanism was proposed by Jeanmarie and Van Duyne in Electromagnetic enhancement arises from the presence of surface plasmons on the substrate, Figure 4. Figure 4: Interaction of laser beam with the molecules on the nanoparticles. View Figure 4. It results from an increase in molecular polarizability, due to the charge transfer between metal and sample molecule and due to specific interactions, forming charge-transfer complexes.

When molecules are adsorbed to the surface, their electronic states can interact with the states in the metal and produce new transitions which cause enhancement of Raman signal. It was proposed by Albrecht and Creighton in It involves charge transfer between the chemisorbed species and the metal surface. SERS methods are widely used for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information of different structures including pharmaceuticals.

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  • Pharmaceutical Characterization and Detection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

SERS line-widths are relatively narrow which allows for higher discrimination between samples with similar spectral profiles. Several pharmaceutical molecules show good Raman spectra even in diluted conditions. Commercial drugs are used in low doses and are formulated in an inert matrix or excipient to make them into a tablet form, or to modify the release rate into the patient's system.

Raman mapping and imaging of samples may provide data about the distribution and relative amounts of active agent, additives, and binders present. An example is depicted in Figure 5 which shows the distribution of ketoconazole in creams samples. The spectrum of the pure pharmaceutical agent can be obtained by subtracting the matrix spectrum from that of the commercial drug.

Useful spectrum may sometimes be obtained without subtraction when the pharmaceuticals are strong Raman scatters and the fillers are weak Raman scatters [ 15 - 17 ]. Phys Rev Lett 37 22 Russell J Raman scattering in silicon. Appl Phys Lett 6 11 — Phys Rev 3 — Ferrari A, Basko D Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene. Nat Nanotech — Carbohyd Res — Phys Stat Sol B 15 — Mishra S, Shukla M, Mishra P Electronic spectra of adenine and 2-aminopurine: an ab initio study of energy level diagrams of different tautomers in gas phase and aqueous solution.

Spectrochim Acta A — J Phys Chem C — Phys Rev B ACS Nano 5 7 — Download references. Correspondence to Denys Pidhirnyi. SL and RJ assisted with obtaining of the graphene samples and actively participated in the discussion of the experimental results. TL modeled the fragment of the monolayer graphene and made the quantum-chemical calculation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. He has experience in the optical properties of composite materials containing nanoparticles. Among his scientific interests are plasmon-polariton waves in noble metal films and localized plasmons in metal nanoparticles; plasmon-coupled fluorescence; surface-enhanced light absorption, particularly plasmon-assisted light harvesting in solar cells; surface-enhanced Raman scattering; and resonance optical phenomena in dielectric and metal-dielectric nanostructures.

He is an author of about 40 scientific publications in the ISI referred journals. Her scientific areas of interest are biophysics, nucleic acids, solid-state physics, surfaces of solids, plasmonics, surface enhancement spectroscopy, the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, AFM microscopy, and computational chemistry. She is a co- author of more than scientific publications. Her scientific areas of interest are biophysics, computational chemistry, and graphene. He is qualified in experimental optical spectroscopy of solid-state materials, with the main interests in rare-earth-activated or intrinsically luminescent inorganic matrices especially oxides , as well as photonic applications of the respective micro- and nanostructures.

He is an author of 38 scientific papers in the ISI referred journals. His scientific topic is related to the surface-enhanced spectroscopy and plasmonic phenomena in photonic systems containing noble metal nanoparticles. He is a co-author of 1 scientific paper and 3 reports at the international scientific conferences. SL Sven Lange received a PhD degree in in the field of optical investigation of defect structure and properties of medium to large bandgap transition metal oxides. Since , he has been working as a senior scientist with the main scientific interest in preparation and investigation of novel optically induced processes in ceramic sensory materials.

His research interests have covered a wide area from site-selective laser spectroscopy and spectral hole-burning to pulsed laser deposition of thin films and investigations of semiconductor and luminescent gas sensor materials. Most recently, his work is also focussed on biosensor platforms and gas sensors based on graphene and related materials. His scientific interests include optical properties of low-dimensional nanomaterials; design and study of advanced materials for applications in optical memories, light emitters, waveguiding, and optical sensing; microspectroscopy of single quantum emitters molecules, quantum dots, nanotubes ; surface-enhanced fluorescence and Raman scattering of single emitters; design of cryogenic equipment; etc.

He is an author of more than scientific publications in the ISI referred journals. Reprints and Permissions. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Abstract An enhanced Raman scattering from a thin layer of adenine molecules deposited on graphene substrate was detected. Background Non-invasive sensing of biological molecules, especially deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and its constituents, by means of label-free optical spectroscopy can open new prospects in biomedical analysis.


Methods We used wide-area commercial graphene sheets prepared by chemical vapor deposition and transferred on a silicon substrate covered with a nm-thick silica layer. Full size image. Results and Discussion In order to distinguish Raman bands of adenine from those inherent to substrate, we measured and plotted the Raman spectra of bare silica Fig. The energy level scheme of the graphene-adenine system.

Conclusions Enhanced Raman scattering from thin adenine layers deposited on graphene was detected.

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

References 1. Springer, New York, pp — Google Scholar 2. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47—65 Google Scholar 3. Bray, D, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and J. Fukasawa, F. Sekine, M.

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Review—Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensors for Food Safety and Environmental Monitoring

Neher, Delay in vesicle fusion revealed by electrochemical monitoring of single secretory events in adrenal chromaffin cells, Nature , , : 60 doi: Vo-Dinh, F. Yan, and M. Wabuyele, Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for medicaldiagnostics and biological imaging, J.

Vo-Dinh, P. Kasili, and M. Wabuyele, Nanoprobes and nanobiosensors for monitoring and imaging individual living cells, Nanomed.

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