The Billboard March - Flute 1 & Piccolo
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Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in , Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in , has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, , it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising.
At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co.
A department for agricultural fairs was established in ; the title was changed to The Billboard in That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris , re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in , followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order".
According to The Seattle Times , Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers.
The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them. This service was first introduced in , became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By , there were 42, people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1, letters per week.
In , Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers.
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Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph , record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in , created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in , but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression , was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis.
Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, , introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January In , it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in called Music Box Machine charts.
By the s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II , due to a growing variety of music interests and genres. It had eight charts by , covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by By , Billboard had about employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in to New York City in A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January , allowing for photojournalis.
After , the Australian Recording Industry Association , using the report under licence for a number of years, chose to produce their own listing as the ARIA Charts. David Kent publicised the Australian charts from — in a retrospective fashion using state by state chart data obtained from various Australian radio stations. Kent had spent a number of years working in the music industry at both EMI and Phonogram records and had developed the report as a hobby.
The'Kent Music Report' was first released on a commercial basis in July and was offered for subscription; the report data was based on radio station charts from around the country, which were amalgamated using a points based ranking system that Kent had developed. These radio station charts were compiled using data collected from local record stores and, as such, were based on retail sales.
In , as funding from subscriptions grew, Kent himself started collecting sales data from retail stores to supplement the radio station charts, his operation grew and staff were employed to assist with research. Within a year or so, the major record companies started using the Report for their own marketing programs and it had established itself as the leading national chart publication. From , retail sales data collected by Kent and his staff were used and radio station charts were dropped from the primary tabulations; some radio station chart. He specially "retro-calculated" charts based on state-based Australian radio station charts available to him dated before May , to fill in the missing years.
On this basis, he put together Australian national charts from - , published as Australian Chart Book - in Before , radio station music charts in Australia were only available on a monthly basis, this is reflected in his published data.
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Although ARIA published the official Australian National charts from onwards, Kent continued to calculate charts from this date, data from which were published in a third book in his Australian Chart Book series. David Kent. Australian Chart Book - ISBN David Kent's Australian Chart Book website. Rock and roll Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late s and early s from musical styles such as gospel , jump blues , boogie woogie, rhythm and blues , along with country music.
While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the s and in country records of the s, the genre did not acquire its name until According to Greg Kot , "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was the lead instrument, but these instruments were replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late s; the beat is a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, always provided by a snare drum. Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, a drum kit.
Beyond a musical style and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion and language. In addition and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music, it went on to spawn various genres without the characteristic backbeat, that are now more called "rock music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage; the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music.
Various gospel and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more — but still intermittently — in the s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience. In , Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as " Rock Me " by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. In , Ohio , disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it; the origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music.
There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States — a region that would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts — through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation. The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St.
Louis , New York City , Chicago and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than before, as a result heard each other's music and began to emulate each other's fashions.
Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, African-American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision"; the immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues called " race music ", country music of the s and s.
Significant influences were jazz, gospel and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African-American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. In the s, swing, both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
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One noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's single Roll'Em Pete, regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll. The s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz-based music. During and after World War II , with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos , using guitars and drums. In the same period on the West Coast and in the Midwest , the development of jump blues , with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many developments.
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In the documentary film Hail! Rock'n' Roll, Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creatin.
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The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15, retailers and digital services daily, capturing To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in and streaming in July The OCC website contains the Top chart.
Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40 , is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from to on local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media.
The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the s to the s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from to as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February , where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music.
The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States , where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July Record charts in the UK began in , when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures.
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For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November , with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Despite being labelled as a "return to playing the blues", the album actually is marked by the generous use of mandolin and acoustic guitar and much less use of keyboards than any Tull album of the Eighties.
Notable tracks included "Rocks on the Road", which highlighted gritty acoustic guitar work and hard-bitten lyrics about urban life and "Still Loving You Tonight", a bluesy, low-key ballad.