Women in the Soviet Countryside: Womens Roles in Rural Development in the Soviet Union
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Susan Bridger. Innbundet Fri frakt! Om boka. Women in the rural workforce; 2.
Women in the rural family; 3. Ta kontakt med Kundesenteret. Avbryt Send e-post. Women in the Soviet Countryside Women's Roles in Rural Development in the Soviet Union Susan Bridger Women in the Soviet Countryside Research on women's roles in rural development has found that women's contribution to the rural economy is commonly underestimated and that women may find it difficult to benefit from the development process.
Les mer. Om boka Women in the Soviet Countryside Research on women's roles in rural development has found that women's contribution to the rural economy is commonly underestimated and that women may find it difficult to benefit from the development process. They sacked the local village soviet, smashing furniture and destroying documentation.
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Preventing the district party secretary from speaking, the crowd killed a party activist and surrounded the headquarters of the OGPU, demanding the release of those arrested. The revolt, meanwhile, had spread to Bazar-Kurgan district. On the 7 March in Bazar-Kurgan district a crowd of about demonstrated against collectivization, demanding that authorities dissolve the kolkhozes, not collectivize livestock and farm implements, and not unveil women.
At the beginning of the demonstration, the crowd killed two activists one of them a member of the raikom , wounded a militia officer, broke into the building of the district executive committee, dragging out and then beating up the chairman of the cotton association. The employees of [state] establishments and enterprises have fled their workplaces--the establishments are in danger of being looted.
These uprisings continued the attacks and looting of the previous few days throughout most of the two districts. The crowds demanded the dissolution of kolkhozes and other Soviet institutions, return of confiscated grain and property, establishment of sharia law, the release of prisoners, and arrest of party officials and activists. An oath was sworn against the kolkhozes at the mosque.
Lessons for Today
Then, the movement swept over almost the entire district. After being rebuffed, they attacked the official. On the second day of disturbances in Jalalabad, a regiment of Red Army soldiers was dispatched to the city along with police and government officials from Osh. Soviet officials in the districts dissolved many of the kolkhozes and agreed to turn over lists of those who had joined them.
If anything, the suppression of the peasant revolts had only strengthened the basmachi , as it sent hundreds of participants fleeing into the mountains, where many joined guerrilla groups. In August, to the surprise of a Russian district party official in Uzgen, Slavic peasants from the village of Pokrovskoe united with the basmachi in looting schools, state-run stores, cooperative organizations, and the post office in Kurshab.
The state was only able to suppress the uprising and ensure a nominal degree of control after August , when OGPU forces and volunteer detachments disarmed or scattered the largest basmachi formations. Predominantly Russian officials before and after the Revolution viewed the region as a producer of raw materials, namely cotton and whatever foodstuffs and draft animals were needed to maximize its production.
Considerations of the welfare of the population, while not entirely absent from discussions of Russian and Soviet administrators, were secondary to the needs of the metropole.
Moreover, the administrators themselves were not drawn from the local population. The Tsarist regime before was not nearly as interventionist as the Soviet regime, but there are important parallels between the Tsarist conscription drive and the mass-scale collectivization of Six years after securing the region during the Civil War, Bolshevik officials still governed the region much as the Tsarist administration had fourteen years before. In the first place, acts of resistance signified popular discontent at Soviet policies of the late s, primarily the forced enrollments in the collective farms in grain- and cotton-producing areas.
The popular slogans reported by the OGPU, however, also point to other grievances, among them the unveiling campaign, the closure of mosques and sharia courts, and the disenfranchisement of pre-revolutionary elites -- all explicitly Soviet initiatives. The resistance also explicitly targeted government institutions and personnel -- many of whom were indigenous Central Asians -- rather than the Slavic population as a whole. Instead, the Slavic population joined in the destruction of Soviet establishments, uniting with the indigenous rebels against a common enemy.
Finally, accounts of the outbreak of violence in Osh okrug read very similarly to those of rebellions throughout the USSR in This in no small part is due to the conventions of OGPU document production deloproizvodstvo. A wide range of party policies had antagonized the diverse population of Osh okrug.
In the grain- and cotton-producing areas, any easing of tensions between the Soviet regime and the rural society under NEP was reversed in by the Land and Water Reform, restrictions on trade, grain requisitions, unveiling campaign, and the closure of religious institutions. These measures prompted passive resistance such as sabotage, concealment of property, and foot-dragging , but generally did not provoke violent acts.
With the onset of collectivization, the disparate groups of the okrug joined in a collective and widespread revolt which took the regime several months to quell. Martin's Press, , especially p.
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See Alec Nove and J. Allworth, ed. Kraskin, ed. See A.
Shchubrikov, Sakharov, ed. See map p. This was mostly due to the unsuitability of many areas to cotton-growing, due either to their higher elevations or lack of adequate irrigation for cotton cultivation.
See OOGA, f. The term has, however, come into common usage in Western historical literature to denote Central Asian anti-Soviet guerillas in the s and s. Kushner Knyshev , Gornaia Kirgiziia sotsiologicheskaia razvedka M.
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Danilov et al. In , he was arrested and was executed a year later. He is the father of renowned Kyrgyz author Chingiz Aitmatov Village soviet chairmen, furthermore, often carried on no correspondence with district raion executive committees or other organizations during the s. His father, an agronomist who hailed from Lithuania, died while he was still a boy. In , he commanded a Red Army cavalry squadron on the Ferghana Front and took part in the storming of Bukhara. In , he became a member of the Communist Party.
His father had been an officer in the army of the Kokand khanate and had fought against the Russian invasion before taking up farming. After the uprising of , Shir-Mukhammad-bek joined the guerilla resistance against the Russians and eventually became, in , the leader of the largest basmachi army in the Ferghana Valley. In , he moved to Pakistan and then on to Adana, Turkey, where he died two decades later.
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See Pylev, Basmachestvo , Janybek Kazy led a large contingent of basmachi against Soviet power during the Civil War, but constant conflict with Kurshirmat caused him to make a separate peace with the Bolsheviks in Janybek Kazy again took up resistance against the Soviet government in in the wake of the Land and Water Reform and the first campaigns to dispossess and deport manaps in northern Kyrgyzstan.